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Wyler ZEROTRONIC inclination sensor

ZEROTRONIC inclination sensor

ZEROTRONIC DIGITAL SENSOR FAMILY

The sensors of the ZEROTRONIC family have a digital inclination sensor and a digital data transmission. Working digitally, they provide the option to compensate for temperature changes and allow data communication over long distances without any loss of data.

The combination of all these features ensures that theses sensors fulfill highest requirements regarding precision, resolution and temperatur stability.

ZEROTRONIC digital sensor family

ZEROTRONIC sensors have established themselves in the market as the benchmark when it comes to high-precision inclination measurement in demanding applications.


The ZERTRONIC family of sensors features the following characteristics:

  • High resolution and high precision
  • Excellent temperature stability
  • Measuring ranges of ±0.5 to ±60 degrees
  • Synchronized registration of measuring values for several sensors
  • High immunity to shock
  • High immunity to electromagnetic fields                        

 

Choice of two sensor types depending on the application:

ZEROTRONIC 3 (former name Type 3)

ZEROTRONIC C (former name Type C)


Common characteristics of the two sensors:

  • The outer dimensions and the electrical characteristics are identical.
  • The measuring element is based on a pendulum swinging between two electrodes. Depending on the inclined position of the system, the pendulum will change its position in relation to the electrodes and in so doing, the capacitance between the pendulum and the electrodes will change. The change of these capacitances is measured digitally.
  • The sensor cell is completely encapsulated and thus protected against changes in humidity.
  • Both sensors are calibrated over the complete measuring range with reference points stored in the EEPROM of the sensor.
  • Both sensors are equipped with a temperature sensor and are temperature calibrated allowing an excellent compensation for temperature changes.

 

Difference in characteristics of the two Sensors:

  • The pendulum of the ZEROTRONIC 3 is larger, which provides a significantly better signal-to-noise ratio for smaller inclinations. The ZEROTRONIC 3 is therefore better suited for high precision applications where only small inclinations are measured.
  • The mass of the pendulum of the ZEROTRONIC C is smaller than the one of sensor Type 3.  This provides a higher stability if the sensor is permanently inclined.
  • Only ZEROTRONIC 3 provides the option of analog output.

The following list of characteristics should allow a proper differentiation and proper application of the 2 sensors:

ZEROTRONIC 3

  • High resolution, high precision for inclinations up to 10°
  • Excellent signal-to-noise ratio
  • Excellent repeatability
  • Excellent linearity
  • Excellent temperature stability

ZEROTRONIC C

  • Excellent precision for inclinations between 10° and 60°
  • Excellent repeatability
  • Excellent long-term stability in inclined position
  • Excellent linearity
  • Excellent temperature stability

Some typical applications for the ZEROTRONIC 3

  • Applications in which high precision and high resolution is first priority, and where only small inclinations are measured:
  • Adjustment of machines (e.g. pitch and roll)
  • Precise adjustment of absolute zero
  • Precise measurement of small inclinations in a heavy duty environment; e.g. exposure to outside temperature

Some typical applications for the ZEROTRONIC C include

  • Larger inclinations
  • Applications in which the sensor remains in inclined position over a longer eriod of time

CALIBRATION OF DIGITAL SYSTEMS

Each single sensor is individually calibrated over the complete measuring range as well as over the complete temperature range the sensor is going to be used in. These calibration values are stored as reference points in the EPROM of the sensor.

Two temperature calibrations are available:

The standard temperature calibration is well suited for sensors that are used in a typical laboratory or a machine shop environment: temperatures around 20° C and slow temperature changes.

The HTR-calibration (High Temperature Range) is suited for those sensors that are exposed to outdoor conditions. These sensors are calibrated at various temperatures, which ensures that they function well across the entire temperature range the sensor can be used, which is from – 40 °C to + 85 °C. Thanks to the extended and more elaborate temperature calibration, the HTR- sensors show a substantially lower temperature coefficient, which is about 1/5 of the value of a standard temperature calibration (see technical specification).

Remark:

Even with an HTR-calibration it has to be ensured that the sensors are protected against direct sunlight and that temperature changes are impacting the sensors evenly from all sides.

WORKING PRINCIPAL

The high stability and accuracy of the ZEROTRONIC-sensors is among others based on the fact that only one single oscillator is applied which is switched by a SELECTOR alternatingly to the two electrodes. This approach ensures that temperature influences can be minimised and the long term stability is optimised. The frequency-differences between the two oscillating circuits are measured digitally and out of these values the inclination is calculated.

 

Due to this concept the signal to noise ratio can be optimised and the inclination can be detemined very accurately.

DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS

Inclination sensors are highly sensitive acceleration sensors which are measuring he deviation from earth gravity. Each non-constant movement produces accelerations which will impact the inclination sensor: the stronger these external acceleration-components, the lower the resulting accuracy of the inclination measurement will be.

 

Inclination measurements on moving objects are basically possible if these physical parameter are kept in mind.

 

Examples of applications which are functioning well:

  •  Roll measurement on machines which are moving evenly along one axis.
  •  Inclination measurement on a boat which is in a protected harbour-area.
  •  Inclination measurement on a container which is lifted.

 

By adapting measuring speed and integration time the accuracy can be optimised.
Examples of applications which are not functioning:

  • Inclination measurement on a train during a turn (the Coriolis acceleration is too big)
  • Inclination measurement on a boat on open sea (the accelerations due to the motion of the sea are too large)

Calibration Certificate:

ZEROTRONIC-sensors can be delivered with an internationally recognised Calibration Certificate against a surcharge

Various

Also the following expressions are common for an inclination sensor:

  • Tilt sensor
  • Digital inclinometer
  • Digital inclination sensor
  • Inclination sensors

*Remarks:

ME = Full-scale errors (are mainly due to drift of zero)
MW = Read Out (errors are mainly due to change of gain) no filter = raw values

no filter = raw values
with filter = floating average over 10 values
HTR-calibration will reduce temperature coefficient by approx. 5 times
TA = ambient temperature

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR ZEROTRONIC SENSORS 3 AND C

The preceding page lists the technical data of the ZEROTRONIC sensor 3 and C sensors. The values shown there require a few detailed explanations.

In contrast to a BlueLEVEL, which is (typically) used in a controlled environment and for a limited measuring period, applications with ZEROTRONIC sensors are usually different. These range from measurements under laboratory conditions, to long-term measurements of objects, which are exposed to wind, weather and extreme temperatures. It therefore makes little sense to define a general “accuracy“ for ZEROTRONIC sensors.
The table with the technical specifications shows the influence of the various parameters on the total error (limits of error). Some of the most important parameters are:

  • Time (measuring time, change of the zero-point)
  • Measured value: GAIN
  • Temperature, or rather the ambient temperature deviation from reference temperature of +20 °C: Temperature coefficient
  • Integration time: sampling-time

 

ZERO-POINT:

The table contains values for the permitted deviation of the zero-point within 24 hours and 6 months. This value is critical if the sensor is fix-mounted and the possible change of the zero-point over a period of time has to be estimated.

Important: The ZERO-POINT deviation can be eliminated at any time by a reversal measurement to zero.

 

GAIN:

This error contribution arises from the change over time of the GAIN. It depends on the reading and has a base value at the same time.

 

TEMPERATURE:

The table shows the temperature coefficient per degree Celsius of temperature difference to 20 °C. That means that the proportion of the error  aused by the temperature at -10 °C is in the same range as at +50 °C.

Important: The temperature error can be reduced substantially (to about 1/5 of the declared value) by the socalled HTR calibration, in which reference values at low and high temperatures are also stored in the sensor. We recommend the HTR calibration in all applications where the ZEROTRONIC sensor is exposed to high temperature variations.

 

SAMPLING TIME <> Resolution / sampling time:

The word resolution describes the smallest angular value which, provided that inclination does not change, remains unchanged.

Obviously, the specified values show, long integration periods = high resolution, short integration periods = low resolution.

It is readily identifiable, that the total  ntegration time is responsible for the resolution. Provided that all values available from the sensor are included in the integration, it is irrelevant whether the integration is done by the sensor or by external software.

At start-up of ZEROTRONIC Sensors they produce every 100 msec a new value. This sampling time may be changed by software message. To each value a sequence-number is attached. This allows the assurance that all  roduced values are available.

The limits of error of a sensor ZEROTRONIC must logically be calculated individually for each application by adding all relevant error contributions. If the application requires measurements at different temperatures and for a long time, these error contributions have to be analyzed in detail to determine whether the required accuracy can be achieved, or whether, for example, mechanical protective measures such as protection from direct sunlight are necessary or whether the temperature influence can be reduced with an insulated housing. Also, the application software and the integration time must be given the necessary attention.

Data transmission through a wireless connection / BlueTC

ZEROTRONIC sensors connected to a BlueMETER SIGMA

The customer buys the ZEROTRONIC sensor and is responsible for the signal treatment himself. This  means the customer uses their own in-house software. In order to be able to do so, the respective  sensor specifications are described in this chapter.

Connection to a PC/laptop through a TC (Transceiver/Converter)

The BlueTC is used as an interface for data transmission through a cable or radio connection. To each  BlueTC up to eight sensors may be connected. In total, the system can handle 64 units. Because every TC also uses one address, a total of 56 sensors can be connected (64 minus 8 BlueTC addresses).  Analysis of measuring results utilizing LabEXCEL software.

Data transmission through cables / MultiTC

The MultiTC is used as an interface for data transmission through a cable. To each MultiTC several  sensors may be connected. In total, the system can handle 250 units. Analysis of measuring results utilizing LabEXCEL software.

ZEROTRONIC sensors connected to a PC/laptop on RS485- Bus through one or more Transceiver/Converters (TC). Analysis of measuring results using DYNAM or LabEXCEL software. External power supply via Transceiver/Converter.

SHIP BUILDING / DETERMINATION OF DEVIATIONS IN PARALLELISM

Measuring task / Goal:
On a large ship several platforms must be aligned parallel to a reference platform, respectively the deviations from parallelism must be determined. This should be done as efficiently and precisely as possible, while the vessel is at sea (protected harbour area).

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RESEARCH - DEVELOPMENT / MEASUREMENT OF A ROAD SURFACE

Measuring task / Goal:
Based on the above mentioned information a standard road surface shall be recorded in a form which enables the integration in a software. This software will control and monitor a testing station in a way that that car test can be performed under laboratory conditions fully integrating the road surface profile. In order to establish this standard road profile, several dozen kilometres long, in an efficient way, the profile shall be monitored and recorded in the longitudinal direction by the aid of inclinometers during driving.

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CIVIL ENGINEERING / BRIDGE MONITORING

Measuring task / Goal:
Inclinometers are used for the long term monitoring, the measuring results of which must be collected, recorded and analysed with a corresponding software. Analysing the measured results is done using a specialised software that computes a distance deviation based on the measured angles.

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PRINTING INDUSTRY / ADJUSTMENT OF STANDS AND PRINTING CYLINDERS

Measuring task / Goal:
Each single colour unit provides horizontal and/or vertical reference faces which must be used during the manufacturing process in the production plant as well as for the adjustment of the printing line. The positions of the reference faces must be adjusted in accordance to each other, measured, and a record must be printed. The positions of the printing cylinders must be precisely aligned to each other (horizontally).

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POWER SUPPLY SECTOR / ALIGNMENT OF LARGE PUMP SHAFTS

Measuring task / Goal:

  • The horizontal positions of the connecting lines between the bearing faces on the bearing ring for the stator must be checked. The flatness and the fully horizontal position of the bearing ring must be assured.
  • The pump housing, one floor below, disposing of a round reference face must also be adjusted fully horizontally

The centre points of the pump shaft and the drive shaft of the motor must be aligned to each other in order to assure that the transmission shaft flanged in between can work free of any bending moment.

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AIRCRAFT INDUSTRY / ADJUSTMENT OF COMPONENTS

Measuring task / Goal:

  • Two radar platforms must be aligned in one plane and precisely parallel to the reference platform
  • Two sophisticated navigation instruments must be aligned in one plane and precisely parallel to the reference platform
  • The „Stall-indicator“, a special warning device, must be precisely set in a predefined angle in relation to the reference platform.

The measurements must be performed while other teams are also working on the same aircraft.

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MACHINE TOOLS / SPINDLE ALIGNMENT

Measuring task / Goal:
The deviation from the right angle between the two working positions „horizontal“ and „vertical“ must be determined.

 

This measurement is required during the assembly, the error correction by scraping when the unit is mounted on a temporary frame with doubtful stiffness as well as during the final inspection of the ready mounted machine tool.

 

The measuring uncertainty must not exceed two seconds of arc. Calculations involved must be possible without the aid of a computer.

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MEASUREMENT OF THE FLATNESS IN AN OVEN WITH LIMITED HEIGHT

Measuring task / Goal:
Flatness measurement of the plates in the oven with precision inclination measurement instruments in spite of the limited space available.

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CONTINUOUS MONITORING OF AN OBJECT (e.g. RADAR), THAT IS EXPOSED TO STRONG TEMPERATURE CHANGES

Measuring task / Goal:
Precise and continuous monitoring of the inclination of the base of the radar base.

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MEASUREMENT OF THE ABSOLUTE POSITION OF A GUIDEWAY

Measuring task / Goal:
For a guideway not only its straightness but also its deviation from the horizontal plane shall be measured. Furthermore it should be determined where and how much should be corrected to adjust the guideway horizontally.

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ALIGNMENT OF AN INJECTION MOLDING MACHINE WITH WIRELESS INCLINATION SENSORS

Measuring task / Goal:

The customer is searching for a more efficient solution for this process during in-house commissioning as well as for the commissioning at the customers premises. If possible the adjustment should be done by one single technician. To assure that no instrument is accidentally pulled down, a wireless solution is to be favoured.

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MONITORING OF A HISTORICAL BUILDING

Measuring task / Goal:
The building shall be continuously monitored with inclination sensors. The measured values shall be stored on-site and be evaluated periodically off-line.

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MONITORING OF A HIGH RACK WAREHOUSE

Measuring task / Goal:
The verticality of each rack in the high rack warehouse has to be monitored permanently.

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POSITIONING OF A HEAVY PART WITH AN OVERHEAD CRANE

Measuring task / Goal:
In order to achieve the required accuracy the bending of the building respectively of the overhead crane should be measured. With the resulting values the vertical correction of the crane should be calculated .

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HORIZONTAL POSITIONING OF TRANSPORTABLE DIGITAL ZENITH CAMERA

Measuring task / Goal:
Horizontal positioning of transportable digital zenith camera “TZK2-D” for high precision astro-geodetical definition of plumb direction and plumb deviations.

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MACHINE TOOLS / ANGULAR POSITIONING ERROR OF A- AND C-AXIS

Measuring task / Goal:
Measure deviation from anticipated angle on different angular positions. As the centre of the axis of rotation is often not accessible, an additional challenge is added to the task. In many cases the measured values are entered in the CNC controller for corrective action. In order to include errors due to mass of the machine components, the measurement should therefore be collected near by the cutting position. Uncertainty of measurement should not be greater than 1 to max. 2 Arcsec.

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INCLINATION MEASURING OF A SATELLITE DURING A SYSTEM TEST IN A TEMPERATURE VACUUM CHAMBER

Measuring task / Goal:
Level all induvidual systems of the satellite to each other. The defined satellite frame point serves as horizontal reference point. The inclination of this horizontal reference point has to be within ±0.001 mm/m.

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ADJUSTMENT OF A CEMENT OVEN DRIVE

Measuring task / Goal:
The inclination of the cement oven drive gear wheel (diameter approx. 1.5 m) has to be exactly the same as the inclination of the turn-tube oven gear wheel (diameter approx. 6 m). The required accuracy is 0.01°  0.2 mm/m.

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CONTROLLED CRADLE TO LIFT AND PLACE PAYLOAD FAIRING OF A ROCKET

Measuring task / Goal:
The balancing and weight distribution cross at the head of the cradle should be monitored in both axes. Deviation from horizontal alignment must be visualized at the cranes control panel. Thresholds in each direction limit maximum allowed misalignment. Overshooting the limits must activate an alarm and disrupt the lifting action. The display unit should facilitate manual corrections of the centre of gravity alignment by joystick. Failures of the monitoring system must be signalled by alarm condition.

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VERTICAL ALIGNMENT OF MEASURING PROBES ON A STRAIGHTENING MACHINE

Measuring task / Goal:

All 3 probes have to be in an absolute vertical position. The acceptable tolerance for this measuring task is ±0.04 mm/m. In order to achieve this, the probes have to be adjusted vertically in both axis.
Note: this adjustment is only required after an exchange of the probes.

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ALIGNMENT OF THE HOLES OF FLANGES

Measuring task / Goal:

Before starting the welding process, the holes of the flanges have to be aligned (twisted) in such a way that the holes have less than ±15 Arcsec deviation from each other after the welding process.

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ZEROTRONIC SENSORS IN STRONG MAGNETIC FIELDS

Measuring task / Goal:
The user of a particle accelerator would like to accurately measure and adjust the parts of his accelerator. The strong magnetic fields allow only the use of non-magnetic material. Only instruments that are not sensitive to heavy magnetic fields can be used.

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PITCH AND ROLL MEASUREMENT WITH 2D-ZEROTRONIC MEASURING UNIT AND MT-SOFT-SOFTWARE

Measuring task / Goal:
The machine should be very accurately levelled in X- and Y-direction. Afterwards a pitch and roll measuring report with numerical and graphical information is required.

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CIVIL ENGINEERING / MONITORING OF VERTICAL MOVEMENTS IN NATURAL GROUND

Measuring task / Goal:
Lengths of steel pipes (3 to 5 meter long) are in the centre section equipped with inclination sensors. The steel pipes are coupled with joints allowing angular flexibility but no translations. The bus capability of ZEROTRONIC sensors allows also the data connection to be chained up, consequently only one cable is needed to connect all the inclination sensors. Prior to any excavation, a hole is driven through the predetermined area and a chain of the mentioned pipes, which covers the complete length of the area to be observed, is installed. Before excavation starts, the connected software will call the inclination of each sensor and use the value as an offset for all future values (Subtract the offset from future values). If the corrected values from all sensors are now assembled to a polygon line, the line is horizontal and straight. Any future vertical movement will show up in newly assembled polygon lines. In critical cases, the results are available on the internet to all parties involved with the construction.

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MEASUREMENT AND CERTIFICATION OF THE TORQUE-RESISTANCE ON AN ENGINE-SHAFT

Measuring task / Goal:
The torsion of an engine-axis mounted on a testing-rig with a base of 12m x 12m has to be measured precisely and put in relation to the applied torque.

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MONITORING OF AN OFFSHORE WIND TURBINE TRIPOD DURING PLACEMENT AND ANCHORING IN THE SEA

Measuring task / Goal:
An offshore wind turbine requires a stable and exactly horizontal base. To achieve this, the tripod, on top of which a wind turbine will be mounted, has to be monitored during the whole anchoring process.

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RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION

Measuring task / Goal:

The requirements in railway construction are increasing continuously. Especially high speed tracks put very high demands on track geometry and therewith / therefore? on track construction. A tamping machine requires exact information about condition and position of the track ahead in order to be able to work precisely and efficiently.

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ALIGNMENT OF SOLAR PANELS

Measuring task / Goal:
Solar panels have to be perfectly adjusted to the sun in order to ensure best possible performance.

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CALIBRATION OF ROBOTS

Measuring task / Goal:
Measuring and definition of the zero-point-deviation of all axes on a robot.

 

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  Manual ZEROTRONIC sensor

  Catalog Chapter - ZEROTRONIC sensor

  Flyer - ZEROTRONIC sensor


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